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Short history of mapping Africa

unknown Africa

the view of African map making in 1895 (du Toit, 'Rhodesia Past and Present', p12)

dark Africa



THE GREEKS

Greek Flat Earth surrounded by Mare Okeanos, ~300BC


The continent of Africa was for a long time kept safe from exploration by the mistaken belief of early Greece, India and China until the 17th century, that the earth was flat (as a dish), encircled by a river called 'Okeanós' (Ocean = 'the great stream that encircles the earth'). The basis for this may lie in ancient pre-Arab Egyptians who appear in 455BC to have successfully rounded the African Cape according to Herodotus (484-425BC), ref. p4 in Stigand's 'the Land Of Zinj'

. Greek philosophy laid the basis for Greek logical thought and Roman exact science. Eusebius in 325AD quoted Aristobulus of 150AD who says that "Plato closely followed our (=Hebrew) legislation", and "Pythagoras transferred many of our (=Hebrew) precepts and included them in his own set of doctrines". As a Greek of a later period, he was reportedly the first to suggest the world was infact round.

THE ROMANS

This shared belief in a world surrounded by a circular ocean is confirmed by Roman historian Tacitus (58-117AD), referring to the earth's edge as 'flat' and the ocean beyond Scandinavia as 'the end of the earth', where 'the sun does not fully set'. Spain's Isodore of Seville collected ancient knowledge of antiquity, including many absurdities, and displayed in Paradiso an early flat earth map borrowed from the Greeks. Galileo, a Christian, did not argue against the church, but against 'scientists-of-the-day' who held to the ancient Greek beliefs that the earth was the centre of the universe. TA flat earth was not unlike the yet later landlubber American-Indian's logic as recorded in Marcy's 1859 'Praire Traveler', that 'if the prairies and oceans be flat, so must the world be'.

Similarly, the question that seemed to confound Africans most around the same time was 'where the sun went at night, into a hole in the earth, or a hole in the water'?(E Wilson, 'Beloved Angola', p161).

Isodore's 'Etymologiae', Latin Flat Earth surrounded by Mare Oceanus, 600AD


THE HEBREWS and the BIBLE


The adaptation of the post-flood, four thousand year old, abstract Semitic LETTERS of the 'alphabet' (from the Hebrew 'alef-bet') in Europe several thousand years ago (instead of the vastly complex graphic scripts of the orient with thousands of descriptive characters), combined with the Indian design of literal angles into abstract NUMBERS, from zero to infinity, brought to Europe by the 'Wandering Jew' (compared to the impossibly complex Roman numerals with no zero and a practical maximum of 3999), which set the Western world on a path to progress and exploration of the unknown.

None of the pagan peoples or cultures were hindered by the Biblical knowledge that the world was round. Yet the Bible frequently mentions the 'stretching out of the heavens' as in: 'around the world', and 'God sits above the vault (circle) of the earth', eg. Job9:8, 22:14, 26:7,10, 36:29, 37:18, 2Sam22:10, Neh9:6, Ps18:9, 104:2, 144:5, Prov8:27, Isaiah36:11, 40:22, 42:5, 44:24, 45:12, 45:12, 48:13, 51:13,Jer 10:12, 51:15, Ez 1:22, Zech12:1). To illustrate, the venerable Anglo-Saxon Christian monk Bede (673 - 735AD) refers to the earth as 'the ball boys play with'. Galileo did not oppose the Bible, he opposed secular 'scientists' of the day who claimed the sun rotated around the world. From 1400 to 1900AD, nearly all scientists and inventors were Christian believers, who were in awe of God's creation and wished to explore it for man's benefit and improvement (thereafter came many, seeking to explain the origins of the the solar system, design, geology, life, species, man, by denying the existence of God, leading to moral relativism ('survival of the fittest'), and mass destruction of life through dictatorships and abortion, and futile wars by atheist regimes in the 20th century).

Comparable to Biblical intimations re. a spherical earth, the ocean currents were discovered in the 19th century by US Navy Commodore Matthew Maury, 'pathfinder of the seas', who had first read about the 'paths of the seas' in Psalm 8 of the Bible. US Founding Father, diplomat and scientist, Benjamin Franklin, grandson of a humble (Ana)Baptist preacher, Peter Folger of Nolfolk, England, weaver, miller, machinist, shoemaker, blacksmith, surveyor, eyeglass grinder, county clerk, teacher, translator, poet, missionary, 'all rolled into one', of Flemish descent, had already meticulously mapped the Gulf Stream, 'a river in the ocean', on a trip from France in 1785 as the first US ambassador (and by then, the richest man in America).

Early Christian Scientists


THE ARABS

Muslim slave traders for a 1000 years on the East African coast believed the world to be'flat like a carpet', as per Koranic teachings (although sailors always must have known better).

"If Algeria introduced a resolution declaring that the earth was flat and that Israel had flattened it, it would pass by a UN vote of 164 to 13 with 26 abstentions."

Israeli Foreign Minister Abba Eban in 1970 on the possibility of flattening the earth by UN decree


Since the 7th century, the muslim Arabs of southern Arabia ventured deep into Africa's interior to buy and transport as many as 17 million black slaves via the Red Sea and the East African Coast, to sell to muslim North Africa, Mesopotamia and Arabia (soldiers, swamp laborers, and women), to Persia, to India (the Siddis), and to China (men as eunuchs), well into the 20th century, along ill-trodden, skeleton-lined paths. The Mongwana tribe (ref. 1907 Journal of the African Society, Vol7, p2), are said to be African descendants of Arab slavers. Swahili (from 'sawahili', Arabic for 'coast') is a mix of Bantu and Arabic. While Mohammedanism was a political-religious system (with forced conversions), the West was commercially driven. It transported around 7 million slaves from 1660-1800 across the Atlantic to the Americas, of which 400,000 to North America, where slavery was abolished by Christians from the North, in the Civil war of 1861-65, against slave-holding Democrats from the South, a struggle which costs 700,000 American lives. The British, who had earlier abolished the slave trade via the 'Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade' (1807, under Wilberforce's tireless 20-year fight, moved by charitable Christian motives) and abolished slavery itself via the 'Slavery Abolition Act' of 1833, also enforced the abolition of muslim slavery by Arab Zanzibar (1873), although it went on illicitly in Zanzibar and elsewhere in Africa until well into the 20th century, with ruthless Arab traders (in slaves and ivory) like notorious figure Tippu Tib devastating East Congo, finally being edged out by rival commercial and political interests from Western powers. While the Berlin Conference of 1884 had agreed spheres of influence in Africa, and sought 'to terminate slavery by black and Islamic powers in Africa', it was the West's (separate) Christian missionary efforts, unlike Islam, that did so much to subsequently help rebuild Africa (by education, administration, health and sanitation, agriculture, order and rule of law).

Arab Slavers in Africa


The muslim Arabs of North Africa, after their expulsion from Spain in 1492, also proceeded over three centuries to kidnap well over a million whites as slaves from Europe's coastlands from Italy to England, as described in 'Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters' by Robert Davis, and in 'White Slaves, African Masters', publ. by Paul Baepler (see online versions).

'White Slaves, African Masters'

THE VIKINGS

The Vikings overcame their long suspicion of the earth's ends being populated by fierce dragons of sorts, to reach North American (NewFoundland) in early 1000AD (a log in the Viking settlement having been dated to 1023AD). Having encountered North American Indians there, themselves fairly recent arrivals from central Asia, they shared with them some of their milk-based products. The simplistic Indians, being lactose intolerant, suffered greatly, and thinking they were being poisoned, proceeded to exterminate the early Viking settlements.

Early Viking imagination of 'end of the earth', 1000AD



THE PORTUGUESE

The earliest rounding of the Cape, however, was disputed as 'impossible' by Greek mathematician / historian Ptolemy (100 - 168AD), who reasoned that Africa and Asia were connected, a general belief seen in early world maps, which lasted until the Portuguese Dias' rounding of the Cape in 1488 and Vasco da Gama reaching India a decade later. That Europeans knew the world was round is also shown in the first complete map of the world with America as separate continent, the Waldseemuller map of 1507. It was in fact the secular philosophers of the very age of reason in the 19th century, who introduced the notion that their 'simplistic' seafaring predecessors once believed in a flat earth, as they wrongly claim to this day (of all people, seafarers knew best that the earth was round, with the top of ships' masts (and tops of land objects) first appearing on the horizon). Portuguese explorer Serpa Pinto investigated the African continent between the west-coast Portuguese colony of Angola and Mozambique on the east coast between 1869 and 1879 (the Zambezi and Congo basins)

Early maps of Africa's unknown interior parts also show a strong influence by Ptolemy until well past the 17th century, who claimed in antiquity that the Nile river originated near the Mountains of the Moon in the far South (thought to be referring to the Ruwenzori Mountains) in the vicinity of two lakes, which the first maps of Africa by Juan de la Cosa and Juan Vespucci reflect. While the odd Pygmee and giraffe from central Africa were somehow brought to the early Egyptians (Choefor), and to Romans, as curiosities and source of wonder, their origins remained a mystery as shown by the many animal cartouches on early maps of Africa, of which the coast was first charted by Portuguese sailors Dias (1487/88AD) and da Gama (1498AD), (and attention diverted away from it by Columbus in 1492AD), whose interior did not lightly give up its secrets.

Unknown Interior

As with the Americas, in the search by Europeans for a passage to India and China, Africa also was an obstacle to finding the passage to India for the entire 16th century, before explorers became interested in looking for access to the unknown African interior itself.

Since Biblical writings, Africa was known by three of four sons of Ham: Cush (Nubia, south of Egypt, bordering on the Red Sea), Mizraem (Egypt), Put (Libya, the Magreb), and Canaan (located in modern Israel), and Canaan's son, Sin, whence the Sinites of the Orient (the Chinese, who by their own account, originated at a North-flowing river with nine tributaries, the Nile. The prophet Isaiah refers to the by then distant Sinites). In most writings since Homer and the early Greeks (who founded Thebes and Memphis along the Nile, as per Daniel 11:3-4), all Africans were referred to as 'Aethopians', literally in Greek those of 'burned' (aitho) and 'skin' (ops), so all dark skinned people, as the map of Herodotus indicates, who refers to Aethiopia as 'the last inhabited land in that direction'. Roman historian Eusebius holds the dark skinned people migrated from the Indus Valley (where similar dark skinned people lived), following Strabo, who mentions their exploits in the Middle East (the Bible mentions in Gen10:10, that Cush's mighty son Nimrod founded Babylon, after which they dispersed).


Extent of Herodotus' world around 450BC



THE BRITISH

In the late 16th century, beginning with Mercator, maps started venturing more into Africa's interior, showing the region of Monomotapa (near the Zambezi), thought to be the source of Solomon's mines. Scotsman James Bruce discovered the source of the Blue Nile at 9500ft in Ethiopia in 1760, after having been well received by its emperor Tekle Haymanot II (there were earlier claims by Christian missionaries, having arrived via the Red Sea). On his return, Bruce was detained in Al Quadarif by Muslim brigands, and again by king Ismael, before making his way to the mouth of the Nile in 1763. Scotsman Mungo Park was one of the first Westerners to explore inland Africa in 1795. He discovered that the Niger river was not connected to the Congo as he suspected (nor to the Nile). He was robbed by the Africans, and tortured mercilessly by the Arabs, but survived. He was killed on his second trip in 1805, after having been attacked by tens of tribes and Moors while covering 1000 miles of the unknown Niger river (which actually originates near the coast but flows inland). Irish-born James Tuckey, in an ill-fated search for a connection between the Congo and Niger basins (beyond the Boussa rapids, where Park had been killed), died of fever in 1816. In 1821 Scotsman Hugh Clapperton and Englishman Richard Denham were charged to find business opportunities and traveled to lake Chad hoping to find the source of Africa's big rivers. They were not only disappointed, but robbed bare. On the next trip in 1826, with young Cornish explorer Richard Lander, Clapperton died of dysentery, a sickly prisoner for nearly a year of Sultan Bello at Kano. Richard Lander, the only survivor of the Clapperton campaign, and his younger brother John returned in 1830, and despite being robbed and held for ransom by a local chief, escaped onto a British ship on the coast, and finally confirmed the Niger's course into the gulf of Guinea. Englishmen polyglot Richard Burton and officer Hanning Speke's Nile exploration in 1859, after much sickness, being held by fierce interior tribes, and paying various ransoms, established Lake Victoria as likely source of the Nile. Scotsman David Livingstone, in an attempt to open Africa for business opportunities, was the first to traverse Africa east to west along the Zambezi to the Angolan coast and back. He returned in 1866, intending to confirm the exact source of the Nile, thought it might be the Lualaba (which turned out to lead to the Congo river basin, though it was known that Lake Tanganyika's elevation was 360m lower than the more northerly Lake Victoria, source of the Nile). But Livingstone was struck by disease and died in Ujiji on the shore of Lake Tanganyika in 1873, a virtual captive to Arab slave traders in central Africa (who saw the Christian's release as a threat to their lucrative slave trade). Welch-American Morton Stanley, after having located 'Mr. Livingstone, I presume', also ventured to confirm the exact source of the Nile, by following the Lualaba, to confirm the course of the Congo river instead, having been confronted by at least seven man-eating tribes along the river, suffering much deprivation including the loss more than half his crew of 288 men. He was rescued by the Portuguese at the mouth of the Congo, near the coast in 1877.

Color map of 500 years of Africa's interior exploration routes


THE GERMANS

In 1848, one of the last of Africa's secrets was discovered by Johannes Rebmann of Church Missionary Society, who during an evening sunset briefly spotted the glitter of an unlikely distant snow-capped mountain near the equator, which turned out to be Mt KilimaNjaro (its Kibo peak). That it had taken this long for a European to discover was partly due to two reasons. On the one hand the unbearable tyranny of the muslim Zanzibari slave traders. On the other hand, the oversensitization of the interior tribes by the same cruelties of the capricious slave trade, which made them attack even peaceful visitors. In 1849, a German colleague of Rebmann, Dr. Johann Ludwig Krapf saw from a great distance of 100 miles, not one but two glittering snow-covered peaks, 200 miles apart: Mt KilimaNjaro and Mt Kenya (ref. Dr. J Julien, 'the Eternal Wilderness' (p48), 1949, and 'Campfires along the Equator' (p156), 1940. Dr Julien became himself the last explorer, traveling for three months in 1932 on foot through impenetrable, roadless jungle from the Liberian coast to the Niger River, as described in his 'Pygmeeen' (Pygmees), 1953). He completes his exploration of Africa with 'the Sons of Ham', 1960, an interesting treatise on the traditions and lore of the Masai, and their obvious Middle Eastern roots and decent from the North.

Masai Flood Story vs Gilgamesh & Bible (Dutch)


Not until after 1300 years of slave trade, and nearly four centuries of exploration since the first recorded rounding of the Cape in 1488 by Portuguese navigator Bartolomeu Dias, did Africa's unknown interior finally give up its last secrets to the world.

Disappearing KilimaNjaro ice in the 19th century (before hydrocarbons), (compare 1950 at right)

THE RUSSIANS AND THE CHINESE

One can say Africa came full circle with the conference of Berlin in 1884, where Christianized nations agreed spheres of influence and sought to 'terminate slavery by black and Islamic powers in Africa' and its recrudescence (recurrence), which took another century, as below books, articles and journals affirm. (Islam continues to this day a form of the practice, by demanding forced payments of tributes by native non-muslims. Medical doctor Paul Julien corroborates this in his 'Campfires along the Equator' (p82), as late as the 1940s, where upstanding, faithful West African muslims, without a hint of irony, keep the black population poor, dependent, and in servitude).

Similarly, many of the Christian missionary achievements of the 19th and early 20th centuries were destroyed by neo-colonial communist powers (Russia and China) in subsequently AIDS-, hunger-, corruption-, and war-ravaged Africa after the 1960s, and the Grand Theft of African minerals by foreign communists, leading to a mass exodus of millions of Africans to their former European colonial rulers in Europe, and to egalitarian America (with reportedly more than 250,000 Nigerian immigrants).

THE AFRICANS

By educating and developing the continent and outlawing slavery, the Christian colonial powers eventually empowered the Africans to be master of their own fate, and brought it into the age of flight, freedom from servitude ('if they can keep it'), development, independence, and satelite technology, to where we can now view every detail of Africa from space.


Africa by Satelite



Vintage Maps of Africa

Ptolemy's 150AD constructed world map, Africa and Asia connected, Hi-Res

1500 Africa - Juan de la Cosa, after da Gama, Lo-Res

1500 Africa - Detail Juan de la Cosa, Niger & Nile connected

1507 Africa - Waldseemuller Carta Marina, Lo Res

1554 Africa - Munster, Hi Res

1573 Africa Domingos Teixeira

1582 Africa Tertia Pars Terrae - Heinrich Bunting

1584 Africa Tabula Noua - Ortelius,Hi-Res

1595 Africa Gerard Mercator Ex magna Orbis, Hi-Res

1603 Africa - Ionnis presbyteri - Ortelius, Hi-Res

1606 Africa - Jodocus Hondius

1625 Africa Descriptio Jodocus Hondius

1627 Africa - Petrus Bertius & Melchior Tavernier

1635 Africa - Willem Blaeuw

1636 Africa - Descriptio Abraham Goos

1639 Africae Tabula Nova - Abraham Ortelius

1640 Africa - Jodocus Hondius

1644 Africa - Willem Janszoon Blaeuw

1652 Africa - Nicolaes Visscher

1661 Africa - Petrus Bertius & Melchior Tavernier

1679 Africa - Nicolaes Visscher & Geraldo_Schaep

1686 Ancient Africa - Mallett

1688 Totius Africa - Frederik de Wit

1689 Africa Accurata Tabula - by van Schagen, Hi-Res

1689 Africa - Vincenzo Coronellis

1691 Africa - Vincenzo Coronelli

1700s Africa by E Bowers

1705 'l'Afrique' - Pierre Moriter

1710 Africa - Herman Moll, HiRes

1713 Africa Delices du Monde - P van der AA

1725 Africa - John Senex

1730 Africa - Seutter

1737 Africa Terra Nigritarum - Hase, Hi Res

1745 Africa - Guillaume de L'isle

1745 Africa - Russian Map, Hi Res

1745 Africa - Guillaume Delisle

1762 Africa - Pays des Hotentots - Janvier

1766 Africa - Danville Bolton, Hi Res

1771 Africa - Latest Improvements, R Reynolds

1786 'l'Afrique' - de la Porte, Hi Res

1787 Africa - Manomotapa - Jean-Baptiste Clouet, Hi Res

1792 Africa - 'From the best Authorities'

1799 Africa - Clement Cruttwell

1800 L'Afrique - Delamarche

1800 Africa - Robert Wilkinson

1803 Africa - Ottoman map, Hi-Res

1805 Africa - John Cary

1805 Africa - Wild Hottentots and Kousi Kaffirs - John Cary, Hi Res

1806 Africa - from the Best Authorities Brightly & Kinnersley, Lo-Res

1810s Africa Hottentottia, German

1812 Africa Arrowsmith and Lewis

1812 Africa - Malte Brun

1813 Africa - Thomson

1821 Africa - New General Atlas - John Thompson, Hi Res

Africa

1827 Afrcia - Regions Unexplored - A Finley

1828 L'Afrique - Vintage Map of Africa, Lo Res

1830 Africa - John Grigg

1835 Africa - Cornelus

1839 Africa Map14 - Unexplored Regions, Mitchell

1839 Africa - Mitchell

1840 Africa - Olsen School Atlas, Hi Res

1842 Africa Thomas Smiley

1843 Africa - Delamarche, Lo Res

1843 Africa - Tanner

1849 Africa - Tanner

1851 Africa - John Tallis, Hi Res

1851 Africa - School Atlas Mitchell

1852 Africa - Cafrarie - Victor Levasseur, Hi Res

1855 Africa - Arrival of the Portuguese 14th Century Spruner, Hi Res

1856 Afrique Transvaal & Orange Republiques - Goujon Andriveau, Hi Res

1860 Africa - Recent Discoveries Mitchell

1862 Africa Stieler

1862 Transvaal Republic, by Johnson

1864 Africa - Recent Discoveries - Mitchell, Hires

1866 Africa map30 by Mitchell

1879 Africa - J Bartholomew

1880 Afrique - Andriveau Goujon, Hi Res

1881 Gray's new map of Africa, Lo Res

1885 Africa, John Bartholomew

1890 Africa, McNally

1899 Colonisation of Africa by Mohammedans

1909 Africa - Bartholomew, Hi Res

1910 Africa - Hammond

1910 Africa - Nouveau Larousse illustre, Hi Res

1912 Africa - Inset 1902 Boer Republics - Shepherd

1920 Africa - London Geographical Institute

1922 Africa - Comparative Geography Atlas, by Bartholomew

1928 Africa - 3 voyages of Cook Mer des Caffres - Herrison

1914 Africa - name changes

1960 Africa - name changes

2005 Africa - name changes

1959 George Murdock, 3000 African Ethnicities

a wealth of poverty

a Chinese wealth of African poverty

Chinese power, African debt

De- to Re-colonization: from capitalism to communism in one generation



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Books on African Discovery and Development

Online books (some partial) of the colonial period, pdf, and/or epub

1799 Mungo Park 'Travels in the Interior Districts of Africa'

1817 James Riley 'Account of the Sufferings of the Officers and Crew in the Desert of Zahahrah'. 19th century Bestseller (read by Lincoln)

1826 Denham & Clapperton 'Narrative of Travels and Discoveries in Northern and Central Africa in the Years 1822–1823', Vol1

1828 Denham & Clapperton 'Narrative of Travels and Discoveries in Northern and Central Africa in the Years 1822–1823', Vol2

1830 Richard Lander 'Records of Captain Clapperton's Last Expedition to Africa', Vol1

1830 Richard Lander 'Records of Captain Clapperton's Last Expedition to Africa', Vol2

1851 Archibald Robbins 'Slavery and Sufferings upon the Desert of Zahara'. Same True Story. Bestseller

1844 Robert Moffat's 'Missionary Labours and Scenes in Southern Africa'

1856 Richard Burton 'First Footsteps in East Africa' (or 'An exploration of Harar')

1858 David Livingstone 'Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa'

1860 Richard Burton 'The Lake Regions of Central Africa'

1861 John Peterick 'Egypt, the Soudan, and Central Africa' (Khartoum to the Equator)

1872 Henry Morton Stanley: 'How I met Livingstone'

1872 Ingersoll 'Explorations in Africa' (Livingstone, Stanley)

1874 William H.G. Kingston, 'Great African Travelers' (Mungo Park to Livingstone & Stanley)

1875 John S. Roberts, 'The Life and Explorations of David Livingstone LLD'

1878 Henry M Stanley: 'Through the Dark Continent'

1878 Henry M Stanley: 'The Congo and the Founding of its Free State'

1887 Joseph Thompson's 'Through Masai-land'

1889 JT Headley - 'Stanley's Wonderful Adventures in Africa'

1891 Stanley's 'In Darkest Africa'

1895 du Toit's 'Rhodesia Past and Present', eye witness account

1902 Sir Harry Johnston's ' The Uganda Protectorate'

1902 Sir Harry Johnson, 'George Grenfell and the Congo' Vol1

1902 Sir Harry Johnson, 'George Grenfell and the Congo' Vol2

1902 English - Swahili Dictionary

1905 'Die Buschmaenner der Kalahari', by Dr. S. Passarge

1907 Frederick Courtney Selous 'A Hunter's Wanderings in Africa'

1908 Abel Chapman 'On Safari - Big-Game Hunting in British East Africa'

1908 Dudlee Kidd, 'Kafir Socialism and the Dawn of Individualism' (Socialism vs the Clan System)

1909 Stigand and Lyell's 'Central African Game and its Spoor'

1910 Burton's 'First Footsteps East Africa'

1910 Duke Adolphus Fredrick of Mecklenburg's 'In the Heart of Africa'

1909 Stigand's profusely illustrated "the Game of British East Africa'

1910 Richard Tjaarder 'The Big Game of Africa"

1910 Stigand's 'To Abyssinia through an unknown Land'

1913 Stigand's 'Hunting the elephant in Africa'

1913 Stigand's ancient history and present inhabitants of 'the Land of Zinj'

1914 Stigand's 'Black Tales for White Children'

1914 Stigand's 'Administration in Tropical Africa'

1920 FW Fitzsimmons, 'Natural History of South Africa', Vol4 Mammals

1920 G.D. Hale Carpenter on Sleeping Sickness in 'A Naturalist on Lake Victoria'

1921 J.H Patterson's 'The Man-Eaters of Tsavo'

1923, Albertus Pienaar, 'Adventures of a Lion Family'

1923, Donald Fraser DD, 'African Idylls', Portraits and Impressions of life of a Central African Mission Station (Malawi)

1923, Jack Herbert Driberg, 'the Lango', a Nilotic Tribe of Uganda

1924, Lady Dorothy Mills, 'The Road to Timbuktu'(Observations on French West Africa)

1924, Charles Dundas, 'Kilimanjaro and its people'(Wachagga/Massai)

1924, 'Guide to Rhodesia for the use fo Toruists and Settlers, with Illustrations, Maps and Plans'


More recent

'The Untold Story of White Slavery' (by Ottoman Turks, Arabs, and Berbers), 13min video

'Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, The Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500-1800' by Robert Davis

'White Slaves, African Masters', publ. by Baepler (Google Books online version)

'White Gold' by Giles Milton: the Extraordinary Story of Thomas Pellow (1716) and Islam's One Million White Slaves

1970 'Scramble for Africa -the great trek to the Boer War' by A.Nutting, exerpt

2012 - Belgium and the Congo, 1885-1980 - Economic analysis by Guy Vanthemsche (Eng)

2012 - Congo - De impact van de kolonie op Belgie - Guy Vanthemsche (Dutch)


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African Journals


'Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa', Archive.org (1908-1978)


Journals of the African Society (1901-1923)

Journal of the African Society, Volume 1 (1901)

West African Finances

British Nigeria

Trade of German Protectorates

Century of Exploration in South Africa

Ophir and Punt in South Africa

Vocabulary of the Lombe dialect of Makwa (Mosambique)

Journal of the African Society, Volume 2 (1902)

Cultivation of Cotton in West Africa

Islam in Western Sudan

The position of British Merchants in the French Congo

Iron-smelting and native blacksmithing in Ondulu country in South-East Angola

The native labour question in Africa

The Development of German West Africa (Kamerun)

The African Society, Journal X (1904)

Mohamedanism in Western Soudan

Notes on the Benin Language

King Maluango's Court

The Court of the Slave Mambona

Notes on the Antelopes of the Western Uganda Protectorate

Recent Portuguese Legistlation on the Negro Labour Question in Portuguese Africa

Water Supply to the Town of Lagos

Kasembe and the Bemba Nation

The Gold Coast when Edward IV was King

South African Journal of Science (1904)

Rhodesian Tick fever

Biological and Ethnological Observations on a trip to teh North East of the Kalahari

Diamond Drilling

Hydraulic Sluicing and Dredging for Gold

Some Considerations concerning Irrigation of in New Colonies, by Reid Bell

Lightning Protectors of Electric Transmission Lines

Prehistoric Monuments of Rhodesia

Journal of the African Society, Volume 4 (1904)

Cultivation of Cotton in Western Africa

The Gold Coast at the End of the Seventeenth Century

Historical Chart of the Gold Coast and Ashanti

The Opening up of the British East Africa

The fight against Malaria

The Berbers

Journal of the African Society, Volume 5 (1905)

Rain Making in Equatorial Africa

The Poison Arrows of Northern Nigeria

The Colonization of British East Africa

Customs of the Awuna Tribes

Languages of Northern Nigeria

The Idem Secret Society

The Bavili Alphabet restored

Recent Work on Bantu Philology

The Sleeping Sickness

Native Affairs in Natal

Sanitary Instructions by Liverpool School of Medicine

Journal of the African Society, Volume 6 (1906)

Cultivation of Cotton in Western Africa

The Progress of Uganda

Notes on the Bahima of Ankole

the Future of the Transvaal

Native affairs in South Africa

Sir Harry Johnstons's "Liberia"

Journal of the African Society, Volume 7 (1907)

List of 26 Illustrations

notes on Journey through the Great Ituri Forest

Basis for a Comparative Grammar of the Bantu Languages, by Sir HH Johnston

Some Reminiscences of Miss Mary Kingsley and Sir Matthew Nathan

Short history on Brass and its People

Books consulted

The Codification of Native Law in the German Colonies, p159

A French Voyage to West Africa 1666-67, p190

Sleeping Sickness in Africa, p249

Bushman Paintings, by A Werner p387

Journal of the African Society, Volume 8 (1908)

A note on the Igara Tribe

Mr Selous Latest Work

Notes on the Bassa Komo Tribe

Sir Harry Johnston on "George Grenfell and the Congo

Fanti Marriage Customs

Native Affairs in South Africa

M. Chevalier's Scientific Work in West Africa

An Unlocated Tribe on the White Nile

Worship of the Thunder-God among the Awuna

Journal of the African Society, Volume 9 (1909)

The Gold Coast of today

The End of Slavery in Zanzibar and British East Africa

Development of the Cocoa industry

The Syllabic writing of the VAI people

Native Affairs of South Africa

Journal of the African Society, Volume 10 (1910)

Edo-Speaking Tribes of Nigeria

Native Races of German East Africa

Law of succesion among the Akras and the Ga Tribes Proper of the Gold Coast

Journal of the African Society, Volume 11 (1911)

The Economic Conditon of Egypt

Wemba War paths

The Proposed South African Native College

Linguistic Bibliography of Northern Nigeria

Journal of the African Society, Volume 12 (1912)

Notes on Collection of Ancient Stone Implements from Ejura Ahsanti

Law and Policy Relating to the Natives of the Gold Coast

Liberia in the Political Psychology

The Bornu Girgam

Volume 13 (1913) Not Found

Volume 14 (1904) Not Found

Journal of the African Society, Volume 15 (1915)

The Germans in East and West Africa

Early Stages in Speech and thought in Bantu

Science and Progress in South Africa

Customary Law of the Awemba

The Lala People and their customs

German South-West Africa Campaign

The Palm Kernel Industry

Slavery in East Africa (2 pages missing)

Savage Man in Central Africa

Journal of the African Society, Volume 16 (1916)

Experiences in German South-West Africa

General Botha's Native Land Policy

The Ogboni and other secret Societies in Nigeria

Science and Progress in South Africa

Nyika Proverbs

The Bantu and semi-Bantu Languages

Economic Resources of the German Colonies in Africa

Nyika Enigmas, East Africa

The Death of Lewanika, King of Barotseland

German East Africa during the war

A Great Hunter, by Pycraft

Lake Bangweulu and its Inhabitants

Witchcraft amongst the Wahadimu

How the Yoruba count

Journal of the African Society, Volume 17 (1917)

Standards of Bantu Speech

Personal Names in some West African Tribes

Rubber Cultivation and Native Industries

German East Africa

The Revision of the Berlin Act

Bantu Speech: a Philological Study

Sisol Planting in British East Africa

Journal of the African Society, Volume 18 (1918)

Railways and Communicaiton in South Africa

The Forest and Forest Department of Nigeria

Bantu Speech: a Philological Study

Some Random notes on the Customs of the Konkomba

African Bantu Melodies

Journal of the African Society, Volume 19 (1919)

General Botha

The Basis of African Religion

An Archeological Puzzle form West Africa

The Mysterious Islands

African Bush and Forest

Tribal Mixture of the Gold Coast

Somali Songs and Little Texts

Notes on Certain Substitutes used by the Germans in the Cameroun

The Kishasi (Kisasi) language

The Bantu in Madagascar

Journal of the African Society, Volume 20 (1920)

The Kalahari and its possibilities

Some English Words in Fulani and Hausa

Land Tenure amongst the Bantu

Ostrich Farming in South Africa

"Mulombe": A Kaonde Superstition

Somali Songs

Cape to Cairo Railway and River route

Journal of the African Society, Volume 21 (1921)

United Nigeria

Samal Marriage

The Guild System fo Bantu Races

Somali Songs and Littel Texts

The African Elephant

The Romance of the new Souith African Farm

The Tide of Colour

Native Administration fo Northern Rhodesia

The African Elephant Part2

The Cotton Growing Industry of Northern Nigeria

The Semi-Bantu Languages of the Beneu Valey

Journal of the African Society, Volume 22 (1922)

Adultery in Ankole

Early Traverlers in Abyssinia

Big Game Shooting in Africa

The African Elephant

Slave Trade

Journal of the African Society, Volume 23 (1923)

How we solved the Language Problem in South Africa

The Ancient So People of Bornu

The Tsetse Fly and Native Morals

Notes on the Ancient Lnaguage of the Arago or Alago tribe in Nigeria

Missionaries and Education in Pagan Africa, p44

The alleged Cedars of West Africa

The Development of Africa, p169

Irrigation in the Sudan, p257

The Union of South Africa, p278

A Note on the Volcanic History of South and East Africa, p96

Book review: Kilimanjaro and its people, p319

Books Reviewed

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