Terra Sancta, Canaan, Promised Land, 12 Tribes, Iudae et Israhel, Israel - Judea, Judea - Samaria - Galilee, Kingdom of Jerusalem, (Mandate of) Palestine, Land of Israel
This collection of maps of the Holy Land, crossroads of the world (the silk and spice routes) and continents (Africa, Asia and Europe), and an area with the longest mapping history in the world, covers here predominantly the period 1500 – 1900. The earliest maps built on the known world in Ptolemy's time, however limited, from which later map making traditions stem. While the subject is mostly the tribal distribution of the Holy Land as per Biblical promises to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob in the past and future, the embellishments are clearly from the age of enlightenment, as evidenced by the map makers beautiful cartouches from the period of 1600 to 1800, showing scenes of the Old Testament (Moses on Sinai, the Temple, Priests, the Ark), but also of Roman times in the New Testament (Jesus' crucifixion, Roman soldiers), before the Holy Land (ruled as part of the Roman province of Syria) was renamed 'Syria Palaestina' by the Romans in 135AD (after the non-Arab Philistines), some hundred years after Christ's death and resurrection. Jerusalem, city of peace, was also renamed 'Colonia Aelia Capitolina', named after the Roman cult of the Capitoline Triad (Jupiter, Juno and Minerva).
The area, in particular the Christian Holy places, was of great interest to the Byzantines, and the subsequent Crusaders must have used maps to find their own way around from Europe. Suffering four hundred years of stagnation under the yoke of the mohamedan Ottomans, no geographical information was added to the subject of Palestine maps, since the land was a barren waste and largely uninhabited, and population steady, as corroborated by many photos and travelogues below, until the modern age, when the names Judea, Samaria and Galilee are again in common use. This more 'recent' period of 1800 - 1900 is mostly represented by functional school atlas maps, without the embellishments that make the earlier maps so interesting, but often with insets of city maps of Jerusalem, that are similarly useful. A map of Jerusalem from the 1890's by the Schneller's Syrian Orphanage (with Armenian children from Syria) is exceptionally detailed.
Of the three categories: the casual traveler interested in the Holy Places, the more observant Orientalist watching customs and habits, author Ludwig Schneller belongs in the third category, born in Jerusalem and raised in the Holy Land, fluent in Arabic and totally familiar with its people.
His parents founded the Syrian Orphanage just outside Jerusalem and it later became his own biggest occupation (as 'Father Schneller'),
accepting orphaned Arab children from Palestine, and from surrounding areas of conflict like the Lebanon (Syria) in 1860s, and Armenians in 1894-1896 (the Hamidian massacres under the Ottoman Turks with over one hundred thousand dead and 50,000 orphaned). The orphans taken in by Schneller learned vocational skills and useful languages, as a means to support themselves.
The author describes the land of Palestine from the inside out, not caring about the so-called Holy Places that 'do more to obscure than reveal', but the people in their poverty, who like a wind-blown harp, sound notes from ancient peoples like the Hittites, Canaanites, and Israelites.
Subjects covered are very illuminating, and are always linked to ways of the Old Testament: agriculture, foods, dress, meals, dwellings, music, weddings and funerals, and the language.
He travels the land and makes the Bible come alive with countless anecdotes (the 'upper room', the fig tree, being 'unequally yoked'), a must read for all who wish to understand the life of Jesus and His disciples.
1905: Archibald Forder dwells and travels amongs the nomadic Arabs of the three regions, Arabia Petra (North), Arabia Deserta (Middle) and Arabia Felix (South), including areas of greater Palestine.
He captures on paper and film many unknown aspects of Arab desert life, hidden from everyday view. He discovers many customs that harken back unchanged to referenced Biblical times,
such as wedding ceremonies and rites of mournings, use of language, land purchases, hiding valuables, customary hospitality to strangers, serving meals and coffee.
He identifies the various tribes and relates their names to the early biblical times (Ishmael, Esau (Edom), Gideon, Kedar, Moab etc).
Many skills of survival are shown in harsh desert conditions, such as finding and storing water, churning butter in sheep skins, use of ovens and the daily mill to grind grains into flour for daily bread.
The author also describes the celestial origins and terrestial tenets of the Mohamedan faith, which in the absense of assurance of salvation, leaves one with the need of various works required to ensure the sympathy of the Eternal Judge.
1906: Arabist and author Rev. C.T. Wilson writes about the people of Palestine more than the land (unlike the numerous travelogues of the day), in particular the manners, customs and dialects of the Fellahin, the peasants of the land (as distinct from townsmen), who he links to the gentile tribes of Canaan.
These unchanged customs, including dress, utensils, furniture, and farming, all relate back to Biblical times, and seem to have been passed over by waves of conquest.
He describes the role of women, unveiled in the case of the Fellahah (female peasant), unlike the Baraghafeh, a tribe who claim to be descended from the prophet, and lock their women away behind doors and veils.
The author tries to capture and record old ways of the past five millennia, at risk of disappearing in the new (20th century) days of trains and telegraphs.
1906: Author Elihu Grant writes on the peasantry of Western Palestine (i.e. excluding trans-Jordan, the much larger Eastern Palestine portion for many centuries).
He covers the springs and rivers, hills and valleys, the lay of the land, as well as the climate and weather.
Grant likens the peasants to the ancient Canaanites who got into the regular habit of converting at the point of a sword (Joshua's Hebrews, the Romans, the Muslims).
As he describes the peasantry, one gets a feel for how people lived and worked, what methods they used, and most interestingly (with pictures), which tools and utensils were used to farm the barren land and manufacture basic goods one century ago.
Filip J. Baldensperger was born in 1856 and grew up as son of German missionaries to Palestine, who ran a school for some 70 Arabic-speaking youths.
This book 'Immovable East' describes the life in 19th century Palestine of Bedawin (Bedouins) and Fellahin (Fellah = peasant or ploughman in Arabic), who he holds to be of Canaanite descent.
He shows that the customs and lifestyles are linked to a common immovable past (despite numerous invasions by Egyptians, Syrians, Chaldean, Greeks, Romans), not unlike Israelite times of old in the Bible, and how ancient pre-Israelite Canaanite beliefs and superstitions strongly influence the Mohammedan faith (note how Gibbon in 'Decline And Fall of the Roman Empire' (Ch6, Pt2) talks of the Eastern cult of Egalabalus (Baal) in Emesa Syria, which revered 'a black conical stone, which, as it was universally believed, had fallen from heaven on that sacred place').
Paul Hommel of Stuttgart took these high quality black & white photographs of the Holy Land around 1920. In the original version called 'Durch 's Gelobte Land' ('Through the Promised Land') it is Ludwig Schneller himself, closely acquainted with the land and people, who provided the narrative (his own photographs shown elsewhere). In the Dutch version published in 1934 'Door 't Beloofde Land', it is A van Deursen who provides the descriptions to the pictures, which provided the Biblical references to the scenes. The pictorial journey starts in the north in Lebanon, showing the magnificent Cedars of Lebanon, which helped build Solomon's Temple, further down thru Galilee, and the life around a lake, the rocky desert of Judea, Petra and Idumea and ending at Aqaba at the Red Sea.These may be the last photographs taken of the ancient way of life in the Holy Land, before new technologies like train and telegraph changed the pace of life forever.
Vintage Holy Land Pictures (Nancy Groenendijk, 1960s):
Author Marius Groeneveld and photographer Nancy Groeneveld have succeeded in compiling a 'most modern book' on the Holy Land (1960!). They manage to cast an interesting light on what are called the 'Holy Places' and invite the pilgrim to read and see for himself, and compare what the Holy Scriptures say about these matters. The book and pictures also cast a light on 'theories of modern archeology' in light of what is known from many sources of ancient history.
"In 332 AD, Priest Jaddua showed Alexander (the Great) passages from the book of Daniel about himself (Dan. 7:6, 8:5-8, 20-22, 11:3-4) which made him decide to spare the city of Jerusalem."
Martin Luther, 1538, 'Against the Sabbatarians: Letter to a good friend’
"Let them go to that country and to Jerusalem, build their temple, the priesthood, and submit to the law, and raise Moses with his law so they will be Jews again and possess the land. If that would happen, they would quickly find us behind them to become Jews ourselves”.
"They are dispersed among all nations, yet not confounded with any. After wars massacres and persecutions, they are still subsist, they are quite numerous. What supernatural power could have preserved the Jews in such a manner as no other nation on earth has been preserved? "
On the Nonconformist and Evangelical thought toward taking the lead in restoring the Jews to Zion (Fromkin's 'A Peace to end all Peace', p268)
"Two Puritans, mid-17th century, residing in Holland - Joanna and Ebenezer Cartwright - petitioned their government "That this Nation of England, with the inhabitants of the Netherlands, shall be the first and the readiest to transport Jizraell's sons and daughters in their ships to the Land promised for their forefathers Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob as an everlasting inheritance”
"He was saying there was no city he so much desired to see as Jerusalem. And with the words half spoken on his tongue, the bullet of the assassin entered the brain, and the soul of the great and good President was carried by the angels to the New Jerusalem above."
"..... A desolate country whose soil is rich enough, but is given over wholly to weeds... a silent mournful expanse.... a desolation.... we never saw a human being on the whole route.... hardly a tree or shrub anywhere. Even the olive tree and the cactus, those fast friends of a worthless soil, had almost deserted the country."
"Palestine's palaces are dust, her stately columns fallen, her streets silent, her fields desolate, while God alone performs his dreadful part, fulfilling to the very letter the prophethic curses pronounced upon the land long, long centuries ago" (Lev. 26:30, Is.22:3, 33:14, Joel1:6-12)
"It is singular that the Philistines, the "strangers" from Crete", who merely occupied a narrow strip of the sea-coast, should through their contact with the western world, have given their name to the whole of the land of Palestine, in which they never succeeded in gaining any lasting supremacy."
Author Ludwig Schneller, born in Jerusalem and raised in Bethlehem, 1889 (Chapter on Bethlehem', Book: 'Kent Gij het Land?' p22, 'Kennst du das Land?'):
"Until recently the surrounding lands were void and desolate. All labor appeared fruitless. Only remnants of cultivation of terraces near the foot of the mountains showed evidence of ancient Israelite thrift.”
Ludwig Schneller, 1889 (Chapter on 'Land and Money', KGhL p66):
"The curse on this land Palestine is not only on account of the (Arab) population, but its (Turkish) government that takes from its subjects, and allows itself to be bribed"
Ludwig Schneller 1889 (Chapter on 'Land and Money', KGhL, p68:
Ludwig Schneller, 1889 (Chapter on 'Bethlehem', KGhL p21:
"Yet here in Bethlehem (with all the reminders of Christ's past presence), I experienced in the desperate conditons of this poor land something like the voice of the voice of an angel, saying: "He is no longer here"
On the Ottomans (the 'Porte') ethnic makeup during WW1 (Fromkin's 'A Peace to end all Peace', p210)
"The Porte was suspicious not only of Christians, but also of Jews - especially the 60,000 or more of them in Palestine”
On the Ottomans traversing Palestine to attack Egypt in 1915 (Fromkin's 'A Peace to end all Peace', p121)
"The roads of Palestine were so bad that not even horse-drawn carts could move along many of them”
On the idealsm that drew Jews to Palestine around 1900 (Fromkin's 'A Peace to end all Peace', p210)
"Those who chose (instead - of America welcoming them from pogroms in Eastern Europe -) the hardships of pioneer life in barren Palestine were dreamers who asked only to be allowed to practice their religion or their ideals in peace”
William Ormsby-Gore, member in 1918 of the British war cabinet, on the Arabs in Palestine being actively supported by the British military (drawn from Muslim areas like India, Sudan and Egypt) subverting the Balfour treaty (they were replaced in three months by a civilian administration when found out). (Fromkin's 'A Peace to end all Peace', p323)
"The Arabs in Palestine are, I gather, showing their old tendency to corrupt methods, with backsheesh, and are endeavouring to 'steal a march on the Jews'”
"He is the first Arab nationalist I have met. He is a leader! ....He is not interested in Palestine, but on the other hand, he wants Damascus and the whole of Northern Syria. .....He is contemptuous of the Palestinian Arabs who he doesn't even regard as Arabs ('but only Arabic-speaking'”
Lloyd George's reaction to Feisal's public statement that the Arabs serving him and his father's army numbered about 100,000 men in the Syria campaign (it was actually more like 3,500).(Fromkin's 'A Peace to end all Peace', p377)
"Eastern arithmetic is proverbially romantic"
On Bosnian immigration to Palestine (Wikipedia, under 'Late Arab and muslim immigration to Palestine)
Lloyd George on the (many) treaties during WW1 (Fromkin's 'A Peace to end all Peace', p401)
"The Treaties of Paris constitute the greatest measure of national liberation of subject nations ever achieved by any war settlement on record....no peace settlement has ever emancipated as many subject nationalities from the grip of foreign tyranny (=muslim Ottoman) as did that of 1919”
Against Britain's wishes for Syria in 1920, with Feisal instated as ruler (Fromkin's 'A Peace to end all Peace', p401)
"the French government inaugurated a diplomatic and propaganda campaign designed to prevent neighboring Palestine from becoming 'a Zionist state'”
An American missionary in 1920 cautioning British acivil commissioner's assistant, Gertrude Bell, attempting to unite Mesopotamin provinces (Fromkin's 'A Peace to end all Peace', p451)
"You are flying in the face of four millennia of history if you try to draw a line around Iraq (formerly governed by the Ottomans) and call it a political entity”
Teddy Roosevelt, ardent Zionist, in 1918, on return of the Jews to their ancient homeland:
"It seems to me that it is entirely proper to start a Zionist state around Jerusalem,’ for peace would only happen if Jews were given Palestine.”
President Woodrow Wilson, in 1918, on return of the Jews to their ancient homeland:
"The allied nations with the fullest concurrence of our government and people are agreed that in Palestine shall be laid the foundations of a Jewish Commonwealth.”
Author Hans Habe quotes the British High Commissioner for Palestine saying in 1923 on the extremely fertile valley of Jezreel (p165)
"The land of Esdraelon was uninhabitable, not a house or a tree."
Chaim Weizmann (then a scientist) in 1921, while traveling by boat to the US to raise funds for the Hebrew University:
"Einstein explained his theory (of relativity) to me every day, and on my arrival I was fully convinced that he understood it.”
Albert Einstein, in 1921, on the Zionist ideal of a homeland:
"Zionism indeed represents a new Jewish ideal that can restore to the Jewish people the joy in their existence.”
Future first President of Israel, Chaim Weizmann, in 1921:
"We look forward to a future where Jews and Arabs will live shoulder to shoulder in Palestine, and work together towards the welfare of the nation"
On Yasser Arafat:
'Yasser Arafat was born in Cairo, Egypt, in 1929 (his father's mother was Egyptian, his father born in facist Ottoman Gaza), while Egypt was administered by the British Mandate'. The Russian KGB pushed the narrative that he was born in Jerusalem, but his heavy Egyptian accent (and birth certificate) gave him away.
'Young Yasser Arafat shares several dubious distinctions with Adolf Eichman, one of which is attending Jewish religious services (in the Jewish Quarter in Cairo), and enjoying their hospitality, in order to 'understand' them better (Eichman was executed for Jewish blood on his hands, Arafat was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize)'
'Jews have had a (frequently interrupted) presence in Gaza for millennia. Egypt occupied it illegally in 1948, Israel took it back in 1967. In 2006, 10,000 Jewish farmers were removed from Gaza by Sharon 'to improve relations with Arabs'. All their farms lie waste to this day, and the innumerable rockets from Gaza prove that 'land for peace' does not work'
"550,000 Jewish soldiers fought with the US forces against the fascists in World War 2, of whom over 10,000 were killed in action. Another 500,000 fought for the Soviet Union, of whom 120,000 died in combat and 80,000 were killed by the Germans as POWs; 100,000 fought for Poland, of whom 30,000 fell; 30,000 fought for Britain, and many other nations."
On Arab violence and retaliation:
"Despite fighting en masse with the WW2 allies, no Jew ever took revenge on a single German after WW2"
on Jewish soldiers on the Russian front, as told by Hanna Marton in Claude Lanzmenn's documentary of Holocaust survivors "the Four Sisters", whose husband was forced to go, and whose brother died in a minefield:
"During World War 2, 60,000 Hungarian Jews were sent to the Russian front, but were kept unarmed, and had to assist the Germans with labor, and act as human mine detectors. Only 5000 returned."
" During World War 2, the Arabs and Turks were aligned with the fascists powers: the Muslim Mufti of Jerusalem, Amin al-Husseini, spent the war in Berlin, and afterwards sought refuge in Egypt to avoid prosecution for war crimes."
by Mel Ayton, p33, quoting Alan Dershowitz: 'The (pre-1945) Palestinian leadership, with the acquiescence of most of the Arabs of Palestine, actively supported the Holocaust and Nazi Germany and bears considerable moral, political ....culpability for the murder of many Jews'
by Mel Ayton, p34, quoting Alan Dershowitz: 'The Jews got the Balfour Declaration for supporting the right side in WW1. The Arabs in Palestine got the generous offer of partition after siding with Hitler in WW2'
by Mel Ayton, p35, quoting the Arab-sponsored Institute for Palestinian Studies in Beirut, which found that 'the majority of Arab refugees in 1948 were not expelled and 68 percent left without ever seeing an Israeli soldier'
IsraelToday: On land ownership in Palestine under the Ottomans (1517-1917):
'There was no land ownership under the Ottomans before 1858, only after this time land registration became possible. Just half the lands of Palestine were considered arable by them ('Miri' = cultivated, land which could be rented for 10% of the harvest), but went mostly unused (or 'Mawat' = fallow)'.
A comparison on land ownership in the newly independent United States ('Undaunted Courage' by Stephen Ambrose, p42):
'Taxes are due on 'warrant land', so as to prevent its forfeiture to the state as vacant or abandoned land'.
On land ownership in Palestine under the British (1917 - 1947)
"When the British inherited this system in 1918 (chaotic and corrupt, to avoid payment of taxes), there were few documents except those of Arabs who had registered and of Jewish purchases from Arabs (often at very high prices). The British maintained the status quo".
On land ownership under Israel (after 1948)
In 1948, 15% of the land of Palestine was owned by Jews, 20% was owned by Arabs, Druze and Christians (such as religious institutions aka 'Mulk-land'). The cultivated 'Miri' lands that were not owned by Arabs and who left in 1948 (so now unrented, unowned, uncultivated, fallow 'Mawat' lands) were nationalised in 1948.
Isaiah 66:8 on Israel's Declaration of Independence 14 May, 1948
"Can a country be born in a day or a nation be delivered in an instant? Yet as soon as Zion was in labor, she gave birth to her children"
President Truman on May 14, 1948, the first to recognize Israel's independence after the UN vote:
"The United States recognizes the provisional government as the de facto authority of the new State of Israel."
"I believe it has a glorious future before it - not just another sovereign nation, but as an embodiment of the great ideals of our civilization."
'Despite claims that Israel's victory in the 1948 war left over one million refugees, (this includes) relatives who entered Israel from 1946 onward, and their numbers were closer to four hundred thousand'
'What few Westerners realize(d) is that Palestinians were (and are to this day) hated throughout the Arab world'
from The Forgotten Terrorist' by Mel Ayton, 2007, p36, quoting an Arab-American journalist on the success of the Palestinian propaganda machine (using the Palestinians exploited in ghettos in the Arab world as a weapon against Israel):
'There is no language known as Palestinian, there is no distinct Palestinian culture, there has never been a Palestinian land ruled by Palestinians. Palestinians are indistinguishable from Lebanese, Jordanians, Syrians, Iraqis (Arabs, which control 99.9% of the Middle Eastern lands).'
"Only after the partition plan (Balfour, 1920s), did many Arabs come in from Jordan, so not as refugees, but as immigrants, looking for economic chances in Jewish agricultural enterprises"
Hans Habe (p169)
"Arabs like to believe in a united Arab fatherland. In 1948, many Arabs left Israel to return home. After the Arab war of annihilation against foundling Israel, only 157,000 Arabs remained in Israel. Of those who left, while they may have lost their dwellings in Israel, the surrounding Arabs stole their fatherland."
"Does the 'right of return' mean, that all stolen goods and possessions of expelled Jews from Arab lands in 1948 will be restored?"
'Until the 1940's, like Palestine itself, no independent Arab nations surrounding Palestine had existed for centuries or even thousands of years, if ever.'
On the 1949 General Armistice Agreement, GAA, mediated by Ralph Bunche, who received the Nobel Peace Prize (from ‘Six Days of War’ by Michael Oren, 2002):
"Under it’s ambiguous terms, the 1949 agreement between Israel and it’s adversaries Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria, one side, the Arab, claimed full belligerent rights, including the right to renew active hostilities at will, and denied the other side any form of legitimacy or recognition"
On the 1949 General Armistice Agreement, GAA, (from ‘Six Days of War’ by Michael Oren, 2002):
'Not all Arab regimes were opposed to peace, in principle at least: the Syrians offered to resettle 300,000 refugees in return for control over half the Sea of Galilee, Jordan wanted a corridor to the Mediterranean, and Egypt demanded the entire Negev (62% of Israel's territory)'
Jewish Owned 'Palestine Post' (later the 'Jerusalem Post'):
"Before 1948, the designation 'Palestinian' applied exclusively to the many Jews of Palestine."
"At the same time of the flight of the Arabs out of Israel back home in 1948, the Jewish exodus from Arab lands started: 235,000 escaped from Morocco, 124,000 from Iraq, 46,000 from Yemen, 43,000 from Tunisia, 37,000 from Egypt, 32,000 from Libya, 12,000 from Algiers, and 8,000 from what is now Syria"
On Bagdad as a city where Jews were economically preponderant (Fromkin's 'A Peace to end all Peace', p306)
"Bagdad one thousand years ago had become the seat of the exilarch - the head of the Jewish religion in the eastern diaspora - and thus the capital of oriental Judaism”
Hans Habe (p170+)
"The UN Organisation’s UNWRA recognized 536K refugees from Palestine in 1948. In 1966 this number had grown on paper to 1.35 million, at an assumed birthrate of 5% when in fact the Arab population had been stagnant at 600,000 in Palestine for 400 years under the Ottoman Turks."
Hans Habe on UN alchemy, 1948 and on (p170)
"The United Nation Organisation UNWRA (12,000 employees then) created the 'Palestinian' from a test tube: any Arab who had resided 2 years in Palestine was declared a 'Palestinian'."
On Palestine partition plans:
"Three times the Arabs were offered a partition plan with their own state: the 1917 Balfour declaration (which still included present-day Jordan, which was split off by the British as Palestinian 'Trans-Jordan' in 1922), the 1937 Peel plan (with only 17% of the land going to the Jews, with a maximum population limit of 500K Jews), and in 1947 during the United Nations nationhood vote for Israel. Three times the Arabs rejected a second Palestinian state."
Prime Minister David Ben Gurion, 1950s:
"If an expert says it can't be done, get another expert."
"To be a realist, you have to believe in miracles."
"We can defeat the Arabs a hundred times, and still have the same problem. They only need to defeat us once, and we are done for."
President Dwight Eisenhower, 1957 on return of the Jews to their ancient homeland:
"Our forces saved the remnant of the Jewish people of Europe for a new life and a new hope in the reborn land of Israel. Along with all men of good will, I salute the young state and wish it well."
"The health of our society depends upon a deep and abiding respect for the basic commandments of the God of Israel."
Pres candidate John F Kennedy, 1959:
"Let us make it clear that we will never turn our backs on our steadfast friends in Israel, whose adherence to the democratic way must be admired by all friends of freedom.”
Pres candidate John F Kennedy, March 17, 1958, referring to basic Arab rivalries, quarrels over boundaries, economic pressures, and cross purposes of nationalism in the Arab world:
"Even by the coldest calculations, the removal of Israel would not alter the basic crisis in the area”
Pres candidate John F Kennedy, 1960:
"Friendship with Israel is not a partisan matter, it is a national commitment”
Ariel Sharon in his Autobiography, on the subject of Jewish land in the 1920s and 30s (p24):
"My parents and other Moshav families had built their village out of nothing (Kfar Malal, destroyed by Arabs in 1921). Through years of backbreaking labor they had taken a malarial wasteland and forced it into productivity. They had refused to tolerate the degrading conditions into which they were born, but instead had gone out and remade their lives. Not one of them had a single question about their right to the land"
Mosje Dayan, in 'Story of my life' on land purchases in the 1930s:
"Sometimes we purchased the land from Arabs - often at very inflated prices - and set up Jewish villages where there had once been Arab villages"
The story of a mountain village, Peki'in, in Northern Galilee with a 2000 year Jewish history (W. Kortenoeven, Israel Aktueel, May21):
"During the 1936-39 Arab war of terror, all Jews of Peki'in were expelled"
"After a cabinet decision, the Israeli government announced that all refugees who went to Jordan, Lebanon, and Kuwait, and who wished to return would be allowed to do so up to August 10, 1967. But very few did. They had to go through the Jordanian government, who held them up and placed obstacles in their way"
On the PLO
It is fact that the Palestinian Liberation Organisation PLO, founded in 1964, did not claim the 'Westbank' (so named by Jordan, while the Jordanians took it from Israel and occupied it in 1948). That only happened after 1967 when Jordan was expelled from Judea, the spoil of a war which was started by Jordan
On spoils of war (Mosje Avital in 'Child of Buchenwald' and author of 'The Failure of Man, and the Enigma of God's Silence'):
"Czechs gave 3.5 million Sudeten-Germans 4 hours to leave Sudetenland, a spoil of WorldWar2, a place where they had lived for 400 years"
On Arab violence and retaliation:
"No Jew ever took revenge on a single German after WW2"
Matan Peleg, CEO of IMTIRTZU in l'Chaim, on the sacredness of Jerusalem:
'Jews that were 3000 years outside of Jerusalem never forgot, they chose education and life. Palestinian Arabs, 30 years after Israel's legitimate war of independence in 1948, chose terror.'
From 'Six Days of War' by Michael Oren, p54, CH.'the Catalysts'
The trigger for the 1967 six-day war was the baseless and false information, knowingly spread by the USSR (the Soviet Union), that Israel had placed twelve brigades on the Syrian border. This caused Egypt to mobilize in the south, evict the UN Peacekeepers from and invade the Sinaï with a massive Egyptian troop buildup, while closing Israel's economic lifeline, the Straights of Tiran'
From 'Six Days of War' by Michael Oren, p162, CH.'the Countdown'
'The Syrians prepared (in May67) to implement Victory ('Nasr') an offensive operation. As designed by the Soviets, 'Victory' called for a forty-mile blitzkrieg by three expanded divisions, ... to take cities of Tiberias and Safad, .....and settlements of the Dan region, then regroup for the conquest of Afula, Haifa, and Nazareth'.
From 'Six Days of War' by Michael Oren, p161/2, CH.'the Countdown'
'Jordan revived Operation Tariq in May67. With the opening of battle, a four-pronged assault would be launched on Israeli positions north and south of Jerusalem (to hold Jerusalem's 200,000 Jews hostage as leverage to retain the socalled 'Westbank'). The Jordanian forces were to 'destroy all buildings and kill everyone inside' in the four areas, including civilians.'
From 'Six Days of War', p86 (CH. 'the Crisis'), quoting UN general Rikhye of UNEF Sinaï Peacekeepers (since 1956), expelled by Egypt, one week before the six-day war in 1967:
"I think you're going to have a major Middle East war and I think we will still be sorting it out 50 years from now"
Mosje Dayan, who instituted this swearing-in ceremony for the Armoured Corps soldiers atop Mt Massada:
"Masada shall not fall again"
From 'Six Days of War', p176 (CH.'the Countdown'), after two weeks of intense offensive military buildup by Egypt in the Sinai, and closing the Straits of Tiran:
'The IAF carried out 164 sorties in just over 100 minutes ... and destroyed 286 out of 420 combat aircraft in Egypt's arsenal that morning - 30 Soviet Tupolev-16s, 27 Soviet Ilyushin-28 medium bombers (intended to bomb Israeli cities), 12 Soviet Sukhoi-7 fighter-bombers, 90 Soviet MIG interceptors, 20 Soviet MIG-19's, 75 Soviet MIG-17's, 32 transport planes and helicopter'.
From 'Six Days of War', p187(CH. 'Day 1') on Jordan's unprovoked air attack on Netanya (eventually losing them control of the Westbank and Jerusalem):
'After the Jordanian Hawker attack on Netanya, the IAF conducted a lightning strike of nine minutes on Jordanian airfields of Mafraq and Amman, which were rendered inoperable, while the Hawkers were refueling. The second Israeli wave completed the task by destroying all twenty Hawkers and eight other aircraft'
From 'Six Days of War', p195 (CH. 'Day 1') on Syria's promise to Jordan that they would attack Israeli forces at Jenin at first light the next morning:
'In fact, Syria had little Air Force left. Two thirds of it - 2 Soviet Ilyushins-28 bombers, 32 Soviet MIG-21s, 23 Soviet MIG-17s, and 3 helicopters had been eliminated in eighty-two midday IDF sorties'
On the Holocaust (The Auschwitz Album - Random House):
In 1967, the Jewish flag was first raised over Jerusalem on the ancient threshing floor of Arauna, purchased by King David 3000 years ago, by a Jewish soldier named Arauna!
On US President Johnson's methods (From 'Six Days of War', by Michael Oren, p326, Ch. 'Aftershocks):
'Having resisted Eisenhower's pressure tactics during Suez, Johnson refused to arm-twist the Israelis. At most he was willing to delay arms shipments to Israel, while urging Israel to be "flexible, patient, discreet and generous"'
On Johnson's legacy (From 'Six Days of War', by Michael Oren, p327, Ch. 'Aftershocks):
'The Johnson Administration would leave a mixed legacy of good intentions and tragically failed dreams, yet there would be no gainsaying its contribution in laying the corner-stone for future Arab-Israeli agreements'
"We cannot lose because we have a secret weapon: we have no alternative"
"The Arabs never objected to 400 years of Ottoman occupation, the only ones to protest were the Jews of Palestine" (p134)
Hans Habe, p62
"The failed Kolchoz was a product of communist society, the successful Kibbutz created the Jewish state."
Prime Minister Eshkol joking about socialism
"If you want to make a small fortune in Israel, bring a large one"
Hans Habe, p63
"In 1967, after two decades of Jordanian occupation, only 10% of Arabs on the Westbank had access to running water but three years later, under the Israeli benefactors in 1970: 76 ltr/d (per person). At the same time (1967), Israel's water reserves efficiency usage was 90%, the highest in the world".
Hans Habe, p215
"Why don't the Arabs want our hospitals and street lights? Because it means we are here to stay."
Hadassah hospital on Mount Scopus, Jerusalem, stood empty and unused during Jordan's rule (1948-1967) after 79 doctors, nurses and others were killed by Arabs during a resupply mission in 1948.
Golda Meir, 'My Life', 1970s:
"We can forgive the Arabs for killing our children. We cannot forgive them for forcing us to kill their children. We will only have peace with the Arabs when they love their children more than they hate ours."
'In Muslim Arab countries, Jews were the lowest caste: even when a white 'Ghimmy' (slave) came to fetch water at the well, the waiting Jew had to move to the back of the line'
President Carter, architect of the 1978 Camp David Accords between Egypt and Israel, despite knowing how Jews had been cruelly shunned and systematically ostracized by Arabs for millennia, wrote a book with the title:
'Palestine Peace, not Apartheid'
Michael Oren in 'Six days of War' (2002, p337), writes:
'In the war of 1948, while a large Arab population remained within Israel, no Jews were allowed to stay in any area conquered by the Arabs'
President Ronald Reagan, 1987:
"For the people of Israel and America are historic partners in the global quest for human dignity and freedom. We will always remain at each other's side."
Wiesje de Lange,
"Relentless persecution of Jews explains the enormous difference in numbers between two 5000-year old cultures of the Chinese and the Hebrews"
"What might be the anatomical significance of thousands of praying muslims turning their rear ends to the location of God's Holy Temple?"
Spanish Journalist Sebastian Villar Rodriguez,'Europe died in Auschwitz', 2008:
"We killed six million Jews and replaced them with 20 million Muslims. In Auschwitz we burned a culture, thought, creativity, talent. We destroyed the chosen people, truly chosen, because they produced great and wonderful people who changed the world (129 Nobel Prize winners). We replaced science, art, international trade, and above all, the conscience of the world, with stupidity and ignorance, religious extremism and lack of tolerance, crime and poverty (only 7 Nobel Prize winners among whom, tellingly, Egyptian-born Yasser Arafat).”
"Incarceration of a Palestinian terrorist for 3 years fetches him $400 per month salary, three to five years: $560/month. Sentences up to 15 years: $1690/month, and up to 20years: $2000/month, all funded by the European Union.”
The PA, 2018
"The Palestinian Authority paid terrorists and their families over $347 million last year, according to its own records”
Taken from 'Jesus and the Jihadis', by Evans and Johnston
'Islam gives its greatest regard to a man who did no miracles to prove divinity and in no way measured up to the sinless and loving Jesus. Muhammad of Islam also made no real prophecies, had everyone killed who disagreed with him, and was fond of splitting up booty from military raids against innocent people'.
"There are over 400 references to subjugating kafirs in the Koran"
"If the Arabs put down their weapons today, there would be no more violence.
If the Jews put down their weapons today, there would be no more Israel."
"I have set watchmen upon thy walls, O Jerusalem" (Isaiah 62:6)
"Jerusalem is the city of the Great King"
"There are over 800 references to the city of Jerusalem in the Bible, not one in the Koran"
"The homeland mentioned in the British Balfour Treaty of 1917 was divided for the first time in 1922, with three quarters of (British) Palestine being taken to form Jordan, on the East bank of the Jordan river (whose population is 80% 'Palestinian')".
Ariel Sharon, p552, 1989:
"One hundred years of terror. And this has nothing to do with our presence in Samaria or Judea or Gaza. Terror was a fact of our lives in the 1960's, 50's, 40's, 30's and 20's. It was with us during the Turkish occupation, the British occupation, the Jordanian and Egyptian occupations."
Ariel Sharon, p551, 1989:
"During the creation of the State of Israel (in 1947/48), the so-called West-Bank was occupied by Jordan and Gaza by Egypt. Then in 1967, these areas were taken back by Israel"
Ariel Sharon, p550, 1989:
"Gaza with its 550,000 inhabitants on 360 square kilometers does not have to be squalid. Greater Tel Aviv has over a million inhabitants with a high standard of living, concentrated on 180 square kilometers."
Ariel Sharon, p545, 1989:
"The fact is, that a Palestinian state has existed since 1922, when Great Britain split off 75% of Palestine to create TransJordan (the current Jordan)"
"(After 1967) Arab inhabitants of Judea and Samaria are members of Jordan's parliament and ministers in Jordan's cabinet"
Ariel Sharon, p544, 1989:
"Israeli Arabs pay disproportionately low taxes, Arab builders are allowed to ignore building codes, minor fees like TV and radio are not enforced, and they do not share the basic burden all others do: 3-year military service. Yet they have the vote to form the government of Israel. For equal privileges, there should be equal duties"
Ariel Sharon, p551, 1989:
"Whatever the political rhetoric, the reality is that a Palestinian state exists in Jordan, with its capital in Amman, and a Jewish state exists in Israel, with its capital in Jerusalem"
Ariel Sharon, p246, 1989:
"In 1970, 70 to 80 percent of Jordan's population was Palestinian (non-Bedouin), most of its Parliament was Palestinian, its most prominent cabinet members were Palestinian, many of its prime ministers have been Palestinian."
Ariel Sharon, p358, 1989:
"Jerusalem has had a continuous Jewish community from Biblical time right to the present"
Ariel Sharon, p358, 1989:
"In 1840, year of the first modern census, Jews were the single largest ethnic group in the city (of Jerusalem). In 1860, the Jewish community had grown larger than the Moslem and Christian communities together, and by 1890 Jews constituted 60 percent of the population (of Jerusalem)"
On Rabin's peace efforts, elected as Prime Minister in 1992 (Six Days of War, Michael Oren, 2002, p313)
'Rabin sought a historic reconciliation with the Palestinian people under leadership of Yasser Arafat - the same Arafat whose guerrilla attacks helped precipitate the (6-day) war. Palestinian terrorists killed dozens of Israeli civilians and Israeli extremists branded Rabin a traitor. One of them killed Rabin at a peace ralley on Nov 04, 1995.
on partitioning Israel in two states by Clinton:
In 2000, the Clinton Administration again proposed to partition the land: the creation of a Palestinian state in virtually all of the Westbank and the entire Gaza strip with its capital in East Jerusalem. The Israelis accepted (under PM Ehud Barak), the Palestinians refused (under PA's Arafat), resorting to years of counter-productive violence.
on partitioning Israel in two states by Bush jr:
The Bush Jr. Administration, after the one-sided Oslo accords of 1993, again proposed to partition the land by 2005: the creation of a Palestinian state, while leaving Jerusalem's status vague, if the Palestinian Arabs foreswore violence, and if the surrounding Arabs made peace with Israel. Three aspects that president Trump achieved without partitioning the Holy Land.
2015 Obama administration State Dep't study:
"During a recent study in 2015, it found that only 20,000 Palestinian refugees remained alive of the claimed 700,000 who fled in 1948 (note that the UN claims there are 5.1 million)"
Danny Ayalon in L'Chaim on Jerusalem, at the 60th celebration of the Six Day War:
"Jerusalem kept the Jews for 2000 years, now we, the Jews, keep Jerusalem”
President Donald Trump, 2017:
"Today we finally acknowledge the obvious: that Jerusalem is Israel’s capital. This is nothing more or less than a recognition of reality. It is also the right thing to do. It’s something that has to be done.”
Even the Qur'an recognizes Israel as for the Jews:
"And thereafter We [Allah] said to the Children of Israel: 'Dwell securely in the Promised Land. And when the last warning will come to pass, we will gather you together in a mingled crowd.'" [Qur'an 17:104]
“And so all Israel shall be saved: as it is written, There shall come out of Sion the Deliverer, and shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob: For this is my covenant unto them, when I shall take away their sins”
The muslim Mufti of Jerusalem Al-Hussaini was a virulent anti-semite, responsible for many Jewish deaths in Palestine between world wars (to appease him, he was made Mufti, and 'rewarded' by the British with a cap of Jewish immigrants to 75K per year during WW2). He spent the WW2 years in Berlin (being wanted for collaboration with the Nazis and for war crimes). He visited Auschwitz in that time, while making a case with the Nazi leadership to exterminate Jews, while spreading fake news to Arab nations demanding them to kill all the Jews there.